Scientific publications

External Presentations

  • Watching phage λ ejection: towards a single-molecule Hershey-Chase experiment. Thesis defense, Caltech, May 14, 2007.
  • Real time visualization of genome ejection from bacteriophages. Single Molecule Biophysics Conference, Aspen, CO, 2007.
  • The role of pressure in DNA ejection from bacteriophage λ. Poster for PCAMB Conference, Puebla, Mexico, 2007. (1200k PDF)
  • Real time visualization of genome ejection from bacteriophage lambda: how internal pressure drives the translocation of DNA. Special Biophysics Seminar, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 2006.
  • Pressure in bacteriophages. Theoretical Biophysics Seminar, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 2005.

  • Viruses: designed by evolution, constrained by physics. Guest lecture for Nature’s Designs, an undergraduate course at the Art Center, Pasadena, CA, 2005.
  • Pressure in bacteriophages. Phage/Virus Assembly Meeting, Winter Park, CO, 2005.
  • Measurements of pressurized DNA in phage capsids. Poster for Biophysical Society Meeting, 2005. (800k PDF)


  • Ph.D. in Physics, with Prof. Rob Phillips. California Institute of Technology, 2002-2007.
    • Studied the role of internal pressure in DNA delivery by viruses, focusing on the tailed dsDNA bacteriophage family, including phages lambda, phi29, T5, and P22. We successfully measured the internal pressure of lambda at 20-25 atm and observed DNA ejection in real time, determining a velocity of up to 60 kbp/s. This kind of analysis required a variety of bulk and single-molecule techniques including theoretical modeling of phages at many levels.
  • Graduate research with Prof. Klaus Schulten. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2001-2002.
    • Implemented the new technique Interactive Molecular Dynamics, interfacing molecular dynamics simulations to haptic force-feedback to allow users to literally feel simulated molecules. Contributed this feature to the source code of VMD and NAMD, the group’s molecular visualization and simulation software, in parallel with scientific studies on the bacterial aquaglyceroporin GlpF and glycerol kinase. page 1 of the story, scanned page 2 of the story, scanned
  • S.B. in Physics with Electrical Engineering. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001.
  • S.B. in Mathematics. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001.

Erdős path

  1. The Effect of Genome Length on Ejection Forces in Bacteriophage Lambda. Paul Grayson, Alex Evilevitch, Mandar M. Inamdar, Prashant K. Purohit, William M. Gelbart, Charles M. Knobler, and Rob Phillips. Virology, 2006, 348(2):430-436, 2006.
  2. Gelbart, William M.; Rice, Stuart A.; Freed, Karl F. Stochastic theory of vibrational relaxation and dissociation. J. Chem. Phys. 52 1970 5718–5732.
  3. Helfand, Eugene; Rice, Stuart A. Principle of corresponding states for transport properties. H. Chem. Phys. 32 1960 1642–1644.
  4. Kac, M.; Helfand, E. Study of several lattice systems with long-range forces. J. Mathematical Phys. 4 1963 1078–1088.
  5. Erdös, P.; Kac, M. The Gaussian law of errors in the theory of additive number theoretic functions. Amer. J. Math. 62, (1940). 738–742.

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